1. Definition: Fiber is a natural or synthetic filamentous material, and textile fiber refers to the fiber used for woven fabric.

2, textile fiber characteristics: textile fiber has a certain length, fineness, elasticity, strength and other good physical properties. It also has good chemical stability. For example, natural fibers such as cotton, wool, silk and hemp are ideal textile fibers.

3. Classification of textile fibers: natural fibers and chemical fibers.

1 Natural fibers include plant fibers, animal fibers, and mineral fibers.

A plant fiber such as: cotton, hemp, fruit fiber.

B animal fiber such as: wool, hairless, silk.

C mineral fiber such as: asbestos.

2 chemical fibers include recycled fibers, synthetic fibers and inorganic fibers.

A recycled fiber such as: viscose fiber, acetate fiber.

B synthetic fiber such as: nylon, polyester, acrylic, spandex, vinylon, polypropylene and so on.

C inorganic fibers such as: glass fibers, metal fibers, and the like.

4. Textile properties of common textile fibers:

1 wool: moisture absorption, elasticity, good performance, not resistant to insects, acid and metal binding dyes.

2 silk: moisture absorption, breathability, gloss and good performance, suitable for acid and direct dyes.

3 cotton: breathable, moisture absorption, good performance, resistance to insects, suitable for direct reduction of azo, alkaline medium, vulcanization, reactive dyes.

4 Viscose fiber: hygroscopicity, good gas permeability, bright color, wide source of raw materials, low cost, close to natural fiber, suitable for dyes and cotton.

5 polyester: fabric, very cool, cool, good shape retention, wear resistance, dimensional stability, easy to wash and dry, suitable for disperse dyes, diazo disperse dyes, soluble vat dyes.

6 Nylon: It has excellent wear resistance, poor gas permeability, suitable for acid dyes and scattered dyes.

7 Acrylic: good fluffiness, fur, suitable for disperse dyes, cationic dyes.

Second, the identification of fiber 1, identification method:

1 Identification methods include hand, visual, combustion, microscopy, dissolution, drug coloring, and infrared spectroscopy. In the actual identification, it is often necessary to use a variety of methods, comprehensive analysis and research to arrive at the results.

2 The general identification steps are as follows:

A. First, the natural fiber and chemical fiber are identified by combustion.

B. If it is a natural fiber, microscopic observation is used to identify various plant fibers and animal fibers. If it is a chemical fiber, the differences in melting point, specific gravity, refractive index, and solubility of the fiber are distinguished one by one.

C. When identifying mixed fibers and blended yarns, it is generally confirmed by microscopic observation that several fibers are contained therein, and then identified one by one by an appropriate method.

D. For dyed or finished fibers, it is generally necessary to carry out dye stripping or other appropriate pretreatment to ensure reliable identification results.

2. Combustion properties of common fibers:

3, fiber calculation method 1 fixed length system:

A. Turks: The weight of a 1000 m length Yarn at a given moisture regain rate is called a special number.

Formula: TEX=(G/L)×1000

Where: G is the weight of the yarn (grams), and L is the length of the yarn (meters)

B. Denier: The weight of a 9000 meter long wire at a given moisture regain rate is called the denier.

Formula: NTEX=(G/L)×9000

Where: G is the weight of the wire (g), L is the length of the wire (m)

2 fixed weight system:

A. Common count (public branch): The length of meters of 1 gram of yarn (silk).

Formula: NM(N)=L/G

Where: 1 is the length of the yarn (wire) (meter), and G is the weight of the yarn (wire) (g)

B. British count (British): The number of 840 yards of a pound of yarn.

Formula: NE(S)=L/(G×840)

Where: L is the length (code) of the yarn (wire) and G is the weight (in pounds) of the yarn (wire).

4. Common raw materials for bedding selection 1 Pure cotton yarn: 36TEX (16S), 28TEX (21S), 18×2TEX32S/2) 15TEX40S), 14×2TEX (42S/2), 10×2TEX (60S/2) )

2 polyester yarn: 20TEX (30XS), 15TEX (40S), 13TEX (4/S)

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